The Ukraine, Norway and Spain Share Paired HA and NA Changes

A/Norway/3364-2, sampled 2009-09-08 on a tracheal swab from an adult female, is a very special individual in the team of 9 Norwegian sequences that each demonstrate HA syn413K, an Avian H1N1 SNP found in the most recent 225G sequences from the widely reported fatal cases in the ongoing flashfire that has now over 1.7 million cases with 404 deaths and more than 100,000 hospitalisations.  The synonymous 413K is traveling worldwide, potentially laying landing strips for 225G

What would you think if I told you that syn413K was traveling with another silent companion . . . who lives on a different gene segment?  Norway3364 is the only recent sequence from that country with a published Neuraminidase segment.  And this time, they gave us a very useful one.  Cross segment linking is occurring regularly in ΣPF11 and this sequence provides an opportunity to examine one pair. 

Norway3364 carries HA syn413K and NA syn407V.   This particular version of 407V is widespread in H5N1 and the cross-segment pair is also noted under the virulent serotype.

Cross-Linked HA and NA from Norway to the Ukraine
  • HA:syn413K encoded from A1281G, AAa->AAg *
  • NA:syn407V encoded from T1221C, GTt->GTc *
* SNP Matches the 4 fatal flashfire cases

A limited inspection demonstrates a wide range for this paired set of travelers.  The following list is not comprehensive, but is a representative geographic sample of other sequences that carry the pair.  Any attempt at a comprehensive study will only result in disappointment as you'll find that many sequences with syn413K have no NA to evaluate and many sequences with syn407V have no related HA.  Patterns do not precisely define themselves without data, but the range is impressive even with the limited dataset.

Norway, the Ukraine, Sweden, Spain, Russia, the United States and Singapore are identified in this sequence range.

  • LvivN2
  • LvivN6
  • TernopilN10
  • TernopilN11
  • Norway3364
  • CatS1096
  • CatS1162
  • CatS1181
  • CatS1268
  • CatS1402
  • CatS1501
  • CatS1687
  • CatS1748
  • CatS1751
  • CatS1761
  • SingaporeON1156
  • Stockholm31
  • Omsk02
  • NY3702
  • NY3715
  • NY3828
  • RhodeIsland08
Very few of these sequences share 100% homology, meaning that most of the backgrounds are diverse on which these paired, cross-segment changes, HA syn413K and NA syn407V, are overlaid.  Those overlays onto differing genetic templates each require a precise sub-segment data acquisition at the Hemagglutinin paired with a second precise sub-segment acquisition at the Neuraminidase. 

We have provided 22 examples so that random mutation and / or spontaneous mutation proponents may think before answering the probabilities of these outcomes under those outdated frameworks. 

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